LA IMPORTANCIA DEL VINCULO AFECTIVO

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El desarrollo de un niño está íntimamente ligado a la formación y desarrollo del vínculo de apego con la madre, que comienza incluso antes del proceso de gestación (deseo o no de tener un hijo, expectativas, miedos, proyectos, etc) durante el embarazo (las emociones, sentimientos, ambivalencias, la historia personal, familiar y social) y hasta los dos primeros años de vida del bebé.

Según Bowlby, “el vínculo de apego se forma a partir de la necesidad de protección y cuidados que necesita el bebé como el contacto, el sostén, la voz y la mirada de la madre, el calor y el olor de la madre; y también de las conductas de apego como el llanto, la risa, la succión, que son aquellas que mantienen al adulto a una distancia adecuada en cada circunstancia; estableciendo un lazo afectivo entre la madre y el niño que les impulsa a estar unidos en el espacio y en el tiempo.”

El contacto, las caricias, constituyen la primera forma de comunicación entre la madre y el bebé, a partir de donde se realizan los primeros aprendizajes, y de donde nace el afecto y el amor.
A través de la piel se integran aprendizajes que provocan una respuesta psicomotriz y emocional del niño.
En los primeros estadios de la vida es de gran importancia que el bebé posea todas sus necesidades básicas cubiertas con cuidado y ternura, estimulación psicomotora, sensorial y de comunicación (verbal o no verbal) lo que constituye el vínculo de apego y los primeros rasgos de la personalidad del niño.

Dicha comunicación primaria del bebé con su madre, se expresa a través de su tono muscular, postura, movimiento. Estas reacciones tónico-emocionales y dinámicas son desencadenadas o modificadas por la multiplicidad de estímulos que recibe el niño, y por la presencia o acción de las personas que le rodean. Estas a su vez van a constituir señales para los adultos cercanos en la medida que expresan una demanda y exigen una respuesta. Esta respuesta a su vez también será interpretada por el bebé desde el lenguaje tónico- postural- dinámico de la madre.

La gratificación, el alivio, bienestar y placer del bebé, es el resultado de un buen acople tónico- emocional entre el bebé y la madre, que van a instaurar y reforzar el vínculo afectivo entre ambos. Por el contrario la frustración, genera un vínculo de inseguridad, ansiedad, displacer y hasta de hostilidad. Las emociones se plasman en el tono, y este a su vez se refleja a través del gesto y la postura en el movimiento. Si el vínculo de apego genera en el bebé sentimientos de protección, confianza y seguridad éste va a poder ir poco a poco explorando el espacio, los objetos, y las personas que le rodean dando forma y contenido a su tiempo y su espacio.

El vínculo de seguridad y confianza es aquel que genera independencia y motivación para la exploración del espacio, los objetos y personas que rodean al niño. El niño va progresivamente conquistando el espacio y permaneciendo en sus juegos.

En la sala de psicomotricidad es el PSICOMOTRICISTA el adulto que fomenta el vinculo afectivo de seguridad y confianza para que el/la niño/a pueda expresarse con libertad.

El psicomotricista observa y escucha activamente las expresiones del niño/a en su juego libre.
– Su gesto, mirada, lenguaje, tono corporal, postura, movimiento, respiración.
– Como se relaciona con los otros niños/as y con el adulto, qué cosas hace con los objetos
y como explora el espacio y utiliza su tiempo.

De dicha observación podemos saber en que momento del desarrollo motriz, afectivo- emocional e intelectual se encuentra el niño/a; y nos permite detectar las posibles dificultades que impiden la autonomía del niño/a.

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